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Citing and Writing MLA 9: Works Cited vs. Bibliographies

Information on style guides, specifically MLA (9th edition), example citations, and other resources for citing and writing.

Works Cited vs. Bibliography vs. Annotated Bibliography

Works Cited is an alphabetically ordered, formatted list of sources (books, journals, websites, videos, interviews, etc) you have referred to in your writing. In other words, it is a list of all the works that you have cited in the body of your text and includes all sources quoted or paraphrased. All in-text citations must be linked to a source on the Works Cited page(s). A Works Cited list may be named differently in other style guides (ex. in APA style, this is called References; in Chicago style, this is called Bibliography). Below is an example of how a source could appear on a Works Cited page. See examples of Works Cited in Sample Papers in MLA Style

Crooks, Julie. Fragments of Epic Memory. Art Gallery of Ontario, 2021.

A bibliography generally refers to a broader, formatted list of sources used in the research process which may, but do not have to be directly cited in your writing and is NOT required in MLA format. 

An annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes additional information (annotation), usually a summary and/or evaluation of each source.  See examples of different annotations. See a Sample MLA Annotation which includes a summary, evaluation of the text, and a reflection of its relevance for the researcher. Check out Tips and Tools offered by The Writing Center (UNC-Chapel Hill) for more information about annotated bibliographies and several examples of different types of annotated bibliographies (i.e. summary, informative, indicative, critical/evaluative, combination).